In the world of skyscrapers like Burj Khalifa and Shanghai tower, steel truss pioneered with the highest quality is the main ingredient. They are strong, durable, and can span large distances without intermediate supports. Because of their high resistance to natural disasters such as earthquakes and high winds, the construction departments often rely on investing in only the finest steel trusses to avoid any future damage to the building. Additionally, steel trusses are relatively easy to fabricate and install, and they have a low weight-to-strength ratio, which allows for cost-effective transportation and installation. Strength, versatility, and sustainability are the synonym for steel trusses in the construction industry, which makes it a core element in structural engineering.
What is Steel Truss? Steel Truss Details
Talking in terms of structural engineering, a steel truss refers to a triangular design that sustains vertical, horizontal, and inclined loads. Eye bars, angles, channels, and plates are the fundamentals of the truss. A steel truss stands for a framework comprising rafters, struts, and posts when it comes to supporting a bridge, roof, or some other structure.
The steel trusses are typically composed of three main parts, the top chord, bottom chord, and web members that connect the chords. The top chord and the bottom chord provide the structural strength of the truss, and the web members, which are typically made up of smaller steel members, transfer the load from the top chord to the bottom chord. The steel truss structure is also designed to be lightweight and easy to assemble, which makes it a cost-effective and efficient option for construction projects.
How Do Steel Trusses Work?
The answer to the question of how trusses work can be answered on one basic principle: Steel trusses work by distributing weight and load evenly across the structure. They are made up of a series of triangular shapes, with each corner connected by a joint. The load-bearing members, known as chords, run along the top and bottom of the truss. These chords are joined by smaller members called webs, which transfer the load from the top chord to the bottom chord. This combination of triangles and joints creates a robust and stable structure that can support significant weight and span large distances. Steel trusses are used in many building constructions, such as bridges, towers, industrial buildings, and residential buildings. They are also used for roof framing, floors, and other structural components.
Steel Trusses Types
Structural engineering introduced a total of seven steel truss types available in the market for different purposes. The following list will help you learn about them quickly.
- North-Light Truss:
North-Light truss offers proper ventilation with a spread of 20-30 meters span, which makes it a super resistant steel truss. It is one of the oldest steel truss types known for its durability and versatility. It is tailored-made for large spaces to ensure maximum light reach.
- Pratt Truss:
Pratt Truss stands high on the list of the most economical steal trusses types in the structural engineering and construction industry. This type of steel truss deals with compression using vertically placed members and tension using diagonally placed ones. These steel trusses are best suited for buildings with a 20-100 meters span. Pratt trusses are further classified into two categories, including;
- Duo-pitch Pratt truss
- Pratt truss with secondary members
- Howe Truss:
A powerful combination of wood and steel gives Howe Truss an output. The use of steel in this one, is for more significant support and reliability. The span it offers is 6-30 meters wide, and that’s why this type is primarily used in the construction of bridges.
- Warren Truss:
In structural engineering, this type of truss is also called an equilateral truss which employs a weight-saving design based on equilateral triangles. A building having a 20-100 meter span uses this type of trusses which creates a shape of “W” when the members are placed diagonally. The best thing about Warren trusses is that they have equal tension and compression; that’s why they need fewer members than a Pratt Truss.
- Queen Post truss:
The Queen post truss is one of the simplest to fabricate yet very versatile in structural engineering. Covered Bridges and roofs with a short span of 10 meters use this queen post truss. It consists of two members with a beam in the middle of them for support.
- Fink Truss:
Known for its shorter members and chores, the Fink truss is most commonly used for roofs. The arrangement for tension and compression varies depending on the construction or structure it is being used for. Because of its shorter members and chores, construction experts use it for places with a very short span. It is one of the most economical steel trusses types.
- King Post Truss:
Like queen post trusses, King post trusses are also one of the simplest steel trusses that structural steel fabricators introduced for places with a short span of 8 meters. Consisting of two angle support members, these trusses are the best for small houses.
Steel Truss System and Structure
A structural framework of steel members making the shape of triangles when connected by the joints makes up a steel truss system. The steel truss structure is pioneered to distribute load and weight equally on the entire structural framework to make it robust and stable. Using bolts or welding, the steel members are connected, making a shape of “I,” “V,” or “W” to make a truss. The steel truss structure is used for large distance spanning and heavy loads supporting that’s why these are the significant elements of the constructional projects such as towers, industrial buildings, factories, and bridges.
To make a long story short, a steel truss system is a robust and stable steel structure that makes for efficient construction projects. These structures provide easy structural steel fabrication for the buildings by distributing loads and weights equally, making the foundations strong and collapse-proof.
In summary; structural steel used in the construction ensures the durability, stability, and sturdiness of the building. If you’re upgrading your building or thinking of constructing a new one, YENA engineering will help you upgrade your construction game with the strength and reliability of YENA engineering’s steel trusses!